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M.A., B.P^D. 
Moderns Master, Woodstock College 







Copyrig-ht, 1919, by 




Warwick Bros. & Rutter, Limited 
Printers and Bookbinders, Toronto, Canada 



This manual has been written with the intention of helping 
the adult foreigners, especially those of the industrial class ; 
though it can be used with equal success in teaching children. 
Almost one-eighth of the total population of Canada at the 
present time is foreign, a large percentage being adult, and 
while the children are taught English in our Public Schools, 
the parents do not have this opportunity with the result that 
there is a tendency on the part of the children to despise 
their parents on account of their ignorance of the English 
language, thus bringing about a break in the home influence. 
Besides, a large percentage of the adult foreigners are not 
illiterate consequently are in a position to learn English pro- 
vided they are given some assistance. Many derive their 
first knowledge of the language from the illustrated sections 
of our newspapers, while they are daily surrounded by printed 
English in the way of signs, directions and instructions. 

With this in mind the illustrations of upwards a thousand 
common objects, along with their English names, have been 
gathered together in this manual. The eye has been appealed 
to as well as the ear and every effort has been made to make 
the work concrete. For instance, no abstract nouns are used 
and most of the verbs are action verbs, while the eye takes the 
place of the dictionary. When the New-Canadian looks at the 
picture of a 'table,' he knows the name of it in his own lan- 
guage and his desire is to know its name in English. A com- 
parison of numbers will give him this. Hence it will appeal to 
the New-Canadian of any nationality. It is not essential that 
he should pronounce every word since the word image will 

stay with him and he will associate it with the object. Many 
native-born Canadians have learned to read and understand 
foreign languages who have never heard a syllable spoken. 

Naturally the New-Canadians with a teacher will progress 
much more rapidly. For a beginning the teacher should teach 
his class the numbers up to perhaps fifty. Have them repeat 
the numbers in concert since this overcomes any timidity they 
may have. Then let the teacher point out the picture of 'door' 
saying that 'one' is 'door' and pointing immediately to the 
printed word 'door.' Do this with 'key' and so on until all the 
objects have been pointed out and named. When all the 
words in the first lesson have been repeated in concert several 
times, each learner may be asked to repeat them by himself 
until he has a fair pronunciation. The teacher should finally 
write the words on the blackboard and have them copied. 

Having learned the names of the objects, the teacher may 
direct the class to the phrase work based on these words. 
Here he should make the distinction between 'a' and 'the' 
followed by the illustrating of the meaning of the prepositions. 
It will be found that the same word is repeated frequently 
as the learner is encouraged by constantly meeting a word 
which he has already learned to pronounce. The sentences 
have been made short for the sake of having them more easily 

The teacher will find the following letters present peculiar 
difficulties of pronunciation : r, 1, sh, ch, t, th, i. The letter V 
will probably be trilled; T forward in mouth; 'sh' and 'ch' 
will be confused ; for 't,' the tongue will be placed between the 
teeth ; 'th' will invariably cause difficulty which may be over- 
come by having the tongue protruded between the teeth, then 
blowing and pronouncing 'thing;' 'i' will doubtless be pro- 
nounced 'ee' and all vowels at the end of words may be pro- 
nounced. Besides, the vowels will not be diphthongized as in 

English but pronounced as single ones ; they may also be pro- 
duced too far back in throat. The letter V will not be pro- 
nounced unless emphasized since the average New Canadian 
doesn't like the sound and so omits it frequently. 

There has been no attempt to suggest the niceties of mean- 
ing such as the distinction between 'shall' and 'will.' The 
words and sentences used are not intended to be compre- 
hensive, but merely suggestive. A few lessons based on 
particular industrial occupations of the New Canadians have 
been added, and it is the intention of the author to get out 
supplements for firms employing large numbers of foreigners. 
Grateful recognition of help and criticism is made to Dr. H. 
T. J. Coleman of Queen's University and Dr. E. W. Sawyer, 
of Woodstock College, and finally to my wife for her constant 
encouragement and suggestion. 

Woodstock College, 

November 26, 1918. 



Preface 7 

Colors 11 

1. Room 12 

2. Street 14 

3. Bedroom 16 

4. Restaurant or Cafe. 18 

5. Bill of Fare 20 

6. Parts of the Body . . 22 

7. Clothing 24 

8. Time Office 26 

9. Bank 28 

10. Time of Day and 

Numerals 30 

11. Street Railway Work 32 

12. Picture Show 34 

13. Night School 36 

14. Barber Shop and 

Shoe Shine 38 

15. Railway Station ... 40 

16. Post Office 42 

17. Doctor and Druggist 44 

18. Dentist 46 

19. Church 48 

20. Fruit Store 50 

21. Grocery Store 52 

22. Jewellery Store 54 

23. Park 56 

24. Farmyard 58 


25. Poultry Yard 60 

26. Weather 62 

27. Birds 64 

28. Flowers 66 

29. Insects 68 

30. Naturalization Papers 70 

31. How to Vote 72 

32. City Council 74 

33. Provincial Parliament 76 

34. Dominion Parliament 78 

35. Machine Shop 80 

36. Moulding Shop .... 82 

37. Foundry Shop 84 

38. Paint Shop 86 

39. Packing House or 

Abattoir 88 

40. Packing House or 

Abattoir 90 

41. Packing House or 

Abattoir 92 

42. Letter Writing - 94 

43. Tables of Weights 

Measures 95 

National Anthem . . 96 

O Canada 96 

Map of Canada 

















1 Door 

2 Key 

3 Key-hole 

4 Lock 

5 Window 

6 Window pane 

7 Window blind 

8 Table 

9 Table-top 
10 Table-leg 

1 1 Drawer 

12 Chair 

1 3 Arm-chair 

14 Wall 

15 Picture 

16 Picture-frame 

17 Shelf 

18 Clock 

Circles filled in with black indicate the whole object, not 
any one part. Thus (1) means "door," not "panel." 


Number One ROOM 

A door 1 . A key 2 in a door. A key in a key-hole 3 . A key- 
hole in a door. A lock 4 on a door. A window 5 in a room. 
A window-pane 6 in a window. A table-leg 10 . A drawer 11 
in a table. A table-top 9 . A chair 12 by a table. A chair by 
an arm-chair 13 . A picture 15 on a wall 14 . A picture in a 
picture-frame 16 . A clock 18 on a shelf 17 . 

The door by the window. The key-hole in the door. The 
key in the key-hole. The lock on the door. The window- 
pane in the window. The window-blind on the window. The 
table by the chair. The arm-chair by the door. The door 
in the wall. The table-top on the table. The table-leg of a 
table. The drawer on the chair. The arm-chair by the wall. 
The picture on the table. The picture in the picture-frame. 
The clock on the table. The shelf on the wall. The clock 
on the shelf. 

Open the door. Shut the door. Open the window. Shut 
the window. Wind the clock. Turn the key. Lock the 
door. Pull the window-blind. Shut the drawer. Hang the 
picture. Sit down. Stand up. Go to the door. Go to the 
window. Learn English. Learn to read English. Learn to 
write English. 



1 Man, husband, father, 

Mr. Canadian 

2 Woman, wife, mother, 

Mrs. Canadian 

3 Boy, son, John Canadian 

4 Girl, daughter, 

Mary Canadian 

5 Baby, child, 

George Canadian 

6 Baby-carriage 

7 Child 
8 Road 
9 Sidewalk 
10 Street- 
11 Street-car 
12 Trolley- 
13 Wire 
14 Ticket 

15 Transfer 
16 Wheel 
17 Fare-box 
18 Newsboy 
19 Paper 
20 Conductor 
2 1 Motorman 
22 Policeman 
23 Horse 
24 Wagon 

25 Automobile 

26 Bicycle 

27 Store 

28 House 

Number Two STREET 

The man 1 and the woman 2 . The boy 3 and the girl 4 . The 
baby 5 and the baby-carriage 6 . (One man, two men; one 
woman, two women). The boy is a child 7 and the girl is a 
child. The boy and the girl are children. The boy is a 
son 3 of the man and the woman. The girl is a daughter 4 of 
the man and the woman. The baby is a child of the man and 
the woman. The man is the husband 1 of the woman and the 
father 1 of the children. The woman is the wife 2 of the man 
and the mother 2 of the children. The name 1 of the man is 
Mr. Canadian 1 . The name 2 of the woman is Mrs. Canadian 2 . 
The name 3 of the boy is John Canadian 3 and the name 4 of 
the girl is Mary Canadian 4 . The name 5 of the baby is 
George Canadian 5 . The baby's name is George. 

The policeman 22 is on the side-walk 9 . The street car 11 is 
on the road 8 . The conductor 20 is on the back of the street- 
car. The motorman 21 is on the front of the street-car. The 
conductor has a fare-box 17 . A man puts a ticket 14 in the 
fare-box. The conductor gives the man a transfer 15 . The 
trolley-pole 12 is on the wire 13 . The horse 23 pulls the wagon 24 . 
The man drives the automobile 25 . The automobile has four 
wheels 16 . The bicycle 26 has two wheels. The policeman 
rides a bicycle. 

The house 28 is by the store 27 . The newsboy 18 is at the 
store. The store is on the street-corner 10 . The newsboy 
sells a paper 19 . The man buys a paper. 




7 Bed-clothes 

13 Towel 

19 Wash-stand 


8 Pillow 

14 Toothbrush 

20 Dresser 


9 Clothes-closet 

15 Clothes-brush 

2 1 Looking-glass 


10 Soap 

16 Wash-basin 

22 Bath-tub 


11 Hair-brush 

17 Pitcher 

23 Hot-water tap 


12 Comb 

18 Soap-dish 

24 Cold-water tap 


Number Three BEDROOM 

The bed 1 is in the bedroom. I see the bedstead 2 . Do you 
see the bedstead ? Yes, I see the bedstead. Do you see the 
springs 3 ? No, I do not see the springs. The mattress 4 is 
on the springs. The sheet 6 covers the mattress. The bed- 
clothes 7 are on the bed. The blanket 5 covers the man. 

Do you sleep in a bed? Yes, I sleep in a bed. Is the 
pillow 8 on the bed? Yes, the pillow is on the bed. I hang 
my clothes in a clothes-closet 9 . The soap 10 is in the soap- 
dish 18 . The soap-dish is on the wash-stand 19 . Have you any 
soap? Yes, I have some soap. Have you your comb 12 ? 
Yes, I have my comb and my hair-brush 11 . I comb with my 
comb. Brush with your hair-brush. Brush your clothes 
with your clothes-brush 15 . 

Turn the hot-water tap 23 . The water in the hot-water tap 
is hot. The water in the cold-water tap 24 is cold. The hot- 
water and cold-water run into the bath-tub 22 . Do you wish 
to take a bath? Yes, thank you, I wish to take a bath. Do 
you want a towel 13 ? No, thank you, I do not want a towel, 
I have a towel. The pitcher 17 is in the wash-basin 16 . I look 
at myself in the looking-glass 21 . You look at yourself in the 
looking-glass. We look at ourselves in the looking-glass. 
The tooth-brush 14 is on the washstand. The clothes-brush, 
the hair-brush and comb are on the dresser 20 . 



1 Waiter 6 Saucer 11 Bill of fare 16 Bread 21 Glass 

2 Waitress 7 Knife 12 Salt 17 Butter 22 Food 

3 Table-cloth 8 Fork 13 Pepper 18 Tea 23 Tooth-picks 

4 Plate 9 Spoon 14 Vinegar 19 Coffee 24 Phonograph 

5 Cup 10 Napkin 15 Mustard 20 Milk 25 Cash-register 



I have we have I am we are I go we go 

he has you have he is you are he goes you go 

she has they have she is they are she goes they go 

it has it is it goes 

Mr. Canadian goes into a restaurant. He- goes to the 
cafe. He is hungry. He sees a chair by a table. He sits 
down on the chair. The table has a table-cloth 3 on it. The 
man looks at the bill of fare 11 . A waiter 1 comes and the 
man gives his order. A waitress 2 brings the order. She 
brings a cup 5 and saucer 6 and plate 4 . She brings a knife 7 , 
a fork 8 and a spoon 9 . She brings a napkin 10 , then she brings 
some food 22 . On the table there are salt 12 , pepper 13 , 
vinegar 14 , mustard 15 , bread 16 and butter 17 . Mr. Canadian 
drinks tea 18 and coffee 19 ; sometimes he drinks milk 20 . 

At the table are three men. They come to eat and drink. 
They give their orders to the waiters and to the waitresses. 
They spread out their napkins. They eat meat and potatoes. 
They drink coffee. Do they drink milk? Yes, sometimes 
they drink milk. They drink milk out of a glass 21 . They eat 
bread and butter. They put salt and pepper on their meat 
and potatoes. They go to the man at the cash-register 25 and 
pay for their meal. They take tooth-picks 23 and go out. 
The phonograph 24 plays music. 






1 Bill of fare 

2 Radishes 

3 Olives 

4 Soup 

5 Fish 

7 Lamb chop 

8 Roast of beef 

9 Leg of lamb 

10 Potato 

1 1 Asparagus 

6 Stewed chicken 12 Pie 

13 Pudding 

1 4 Ice cream 

15 Cheese 

16 Apples 

17 Tea 

18 Milk 


19 Bowl 

20 Bottle 

21 Cork 

22 Biscuit 

23 Mashed potato 

24 Sugar 

Number Five BILL OF FARE 

in the picture there is a bill of fare 1 . A bill of fare tells 
us what we can get to eat. We get the bill of fare on the 
table. We look at the bill of fare. At the top we see 
radishes 2 and olives 3 . The radishes are in a saucer and the 
olives are in a bottle 20 . The soup 4 is in a bowl 19 . The fish 5 
is on a plate. Do you like stewed chicken 6 ? The stewed 
chicken is on a plate. On the other side of the bill of fare 
we see a lamb chop 7 . Below the stewed chicken we see a 
roast of beef 8 . Below the lamb chop we see a leg of lamb 9 . 
Do you like potatoes 10 ? The waiter serves potatoes boiled 10 
or mashed 23 . We see a boiled potato. There is some aspar- 
agus 11 in a small saucer. The waitress brings a piece of 
pie 12 on a plate. We can have pie or pudding 13 . We also 
have ice cream 14 . We eat ice cream with a spoon. At the 
bottom of the picture we see a plate. On the plate are some 
biscuits 22 and cheese 15 . There are three apples 16 beside the 
glass of milk 18 . Near the biscuits and cheese is a cup of 
tea 17 . Near the bottle is a cork 21 . There is some sugar 24 for 
the tea. 



1 Head 

2 Face 

3 Beard 

4 Moustache 

5 Hair 

6 Forehead 

7 Cheek 

8 Ear 

9 Neck 

10 Eye-brow 

11 Eye 

12 Nose 

13 Nostril 

14 Upper-lip 

15 Lower-lip 

16 Mouth 

17 Tooth 

18 Tongue 

19 Chin 

20 Throat 

21 Body 

22 Shoulder 

23 Chest 

24 Arm 


25 Muscle 

26 Elbow 

27 Hand 

28 Wrist 

29 Thumb 

30 Finger 

31 Knuckle 

32 Leg 

33 Knee 

34 Ankle 

35 Foot 

36 Toe 

37 Heel 

38 Instep 

39 Hip 

40 Nail 


The head 1 of Mr. Canadian. Mr. Canadian's head. Do 
you like his face 2 ? Do you see his chin 19 ? He has a beard 3 
on his two cheeks 7 and on his chin. He has a moustache 4 . 
It is on his upper-lip 14 . He combs his hair 5 back from his 
forehead 6 . Over his eyes 11 are his eye-brows 10 . We can see 
his two ears 8 . His nose 12 is above his moustache. He has 
two nostrils 13 in his nose. His mouth 16 is open. We can see 
his tongue 18 . It is between his teeth 17 (one tooth, two teeth). 
It is between his upper and lower-lip 15 . Do you see his 
throat 20 ? The head bends at the neck 9 . 

Look at Mr. Canadian's body 21 . He is tall and big. See 
his broad shoulders 22 . He has a full chest 23 . 

I am a man with a moustache. I have two eyes and a nose. 
In my mouth are my tongue and my teeth. My forehead is 
at the top of my face. My chin is at the bottom of my face. 
My hair is on top of my head. We hear with our ears, and 
we see with our eyes. 

Look at the man's arm 24 . See the muscle 25 . It is between 
the elbow 26 and the shoulder. The hand 27 bends at the] 
wrist 28 . A hand has one thumb 29 and four fingers 30 . The 
finger bends at the knuckle 31 . The leg 32 bends at the knee 33 . 
The leg bends at the hip 39 . The foot 35 bends at the ankle 34 .. 
A foot has five toes 36 . Each toe has a toe-nail 40 . Each 
finger has a finger-nail, each thumb has a thumb-nail. The 
instep 38 is on the top of the foot. Look at your heel 37 . 



1 Hat 

2 Straw-hat 

3 Cap 

4 Shirt 

5 Overcoat 

6 Vest 

7 Coat 

8 Pants 

9 Socks 
10 Boots 

11 Shoes 

12 Collar-button 

13 Shoe-laces 

14 Braces 

15 Belt 

16 Umbrella 

17 Rubbers 

18 Neck-tie 


19 Collar 

20 Cuff 

21 Hat 

22 Blouse 

23 Waist 

24 Belt 

25 Skirt 

26 Pocket 

27 Handkerchief 

28 Parasol 

29 Gloves 

30 Mitts 

Number Seven CLOTHING 

Here is Mr. Canadian. There is Mrs. Canadian. Here are 
John and Mary. There are Mrs. Canadian and baby George. 
Mr. Canadian wears a hat 1 . John wears a cap 3 . Mary wears 
a straw-hat 2 . Mr. Canadian is wearing a collar 19 and neck- 
tie 18 . He has a collar on his shirt 4 . A vest 6 is over his shirt. 
A coat 7 is over his vest and an overcoat 5 is over his coat. Do 
you see his pants 8 ? I can see his socks 9 . His boots 10 are 
on his feet. John and Mary wear shoes 11 . I put my collar 
on the collar-buttons 12 on my shirt. Have you a cuff 20 on 
your shirt? We put boot-laces 13 in boots and shoe-laces 13 
in shoes. Mr. Canadian wears braces 14 . Sometimes he wears 
a belt 15 . He carries an umbrella 16 and wears rubbers 17 when 
it rains. 

When it is bright Mrs. Canadian carries a parasol 28 over 
her hat 21 . Do you like her blouse 22 ? She wears a belt 24 
around her waist 23 . Do you like her skirt 25 ? When it rains 
she wears rubbers over her shoes. Mary has a handkerchief 27 . 
She is taking it from her pocket 26 . Mrs. Canadian is wear- 
ing gloves 29 . She has some mitts 30 in her hand. 



1 Time-clock 

2 Check 

3 Clerk 

4 Time-sheet 

5 Wicket 

6 Counter 

7 Book-keeper 

8 Typewriter 

9 Paper 

10 Pen 

11 Ink 

12 Name 

13 Pen-holder 

14 Pen-nib 

1 5 Fountain-pen 

16 Lead-pencil 

17 Desk 

18 Inkstand 

19 Book 

20 Knife 

21 Factory 

22 Blotter 


Number Eight TIME-OFFICE 

We go to work in the morning. We go into the office. 
We look at the time-clock 1 . It is five minutes to seven. I 
take my check 2 . I punch the time in it. To-day is Saturday. 
The days of the week are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. Saturday is pay 
day. I go to the office. I go to the counter 6 . The clerk 3 is 
at the wicket 5 . He has a book 19 . Then he looks at the 
book-keeper 7 . The bo,ok-keeper gives him the time-sheet 4 . 
Can you hear the typewriter 8 ? The clerk has some paper 9 . 
He takes a lead-pencil 16 . The lead in the pencil breaks. He 
sharpens his pencil with a knife 20 . He takes a pen-holder 13 
puts a pen-nib 14 in it. He puts the pen-nib in the ink 11 and 
writes my name 12 on his book. He has also a fountain-pen 15 . 
He carries it in his pocket. It is now on his desk 17 . 

I like to learn English. Can you speak English? I can 
speak English a little. Can you write English? Yes, I can 
write English a little. What do you write with? I am 
writing with a pencil or a pen 10 . The pen and the pencil are 
beside the blotter 22 near the inkstand 18 . 

When a man works in a factory 21 he goes to work at 
seven in the morning. He works until noon. Noon is twelve 
o'clock. He has half an hour to eat his dinner. He starts 
at half-past twelve and works until half-past five. Then he 
quits work and goes home for his supper. He works ten 
hours a day. Until noon is forenoon. From noon until six 
o'clock is afternoon. After six is evening. 

The months of the year are: January, February, March, 
April, May, June, July, August, September, October, Novem- 
ber, December. 



1 Manager 4 Ledger 7 Money 

2 Accountant 5 Savings 8 Bills 

3 Teller 6 Bank-book 9 Silver 

10 Copper 13 Cheque 

11 Dollars 14 Deposit-slip 

12 Cents 15 Express-order 


Number Nine BANK 

Let us go into the bank. What do we see? On the left 
is the manager's 1 office. On the right is a desk. The man- 
ager manages the bank. He lends us money 7 . The teller 3 
takes in money and pays it out. He has silver 9 , coppers 10 , 
bills 8 . There, are one dollar 11 bills, two dollar bills, five 
dollar bills, ten dollar bills, twenty dollar bills. A copper 
is worth one cent 12 . There is a five cent piece, a ten cent 
piece. A twenty-five cent piece is called a quarter of a 
dollar; a fifty cent piece is called half a dollar. The account- 
ant 2 looks after the books of the bank. 

Do you see the savings 5 wicket ? When we deposit money 
in the bank the man at the Savings wicket marks it in the 
Savings book. 

Have you your bank-book 6 ? Yes, here it is. Are you 
going to deposit money? Yes, I have filled out my deposit- 
slip 14 . I give the deposit-slip and my money and my bank- 
book to the teller. He puts the money in a drawer and gives 
my bank-book to the Savings man. The Savings man puts 
down in his ledger 4 the amount of money that I have 
deposited. He marks it down in my bank-book too. Have 
you a cheque 13 ? Write your name across the back and the 
teller will give you money for it. Have you an express- 
order 15 ? Write your name on the back of it and the teller 
will cash it for you. 



1 Clock 

2 Minute-hand 

3 Hour hand 

4 Second-hand 

5 Seven o'clock, 7.00 

6 Eight- fifteen, 8.15 

7 Nine-ten, 9.10 

8 Ten-thirty, 10.30 

9 Eleven-forty-five, 11.45 

10 Twelve o'clock, noon, 12 a.m. 

11 One-forty, 1.40 

12 Six o'clock, 6.00 

13 Twelve o'clock, midnight, 12 p.m. 

14 Watch 

15 Alarm-CIock 


What time do you get up in the morning? I get up at 
six (6.00) o'clock. I wash and dress myself and get my 
breakfast. I start work at 7.00 o'clock. I work until 12.00 
o'clock. Then I have my dinner. At 1.00 o'clock I start 
work again. I work until 6.00 o'clock. Then I stop work 
and have supper. Do you always have your breakfast 
before 7.00 o'clock? No, when I go to work at 8.00 a.m., 

I have it after 7.00 a.m. 

Can you count ? No, but I can learn. Say one, two, three, 
four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten. Write 12345 
6 7 8 9 10. Say eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, 
fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen, twenty. Write 

II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20. Say twenty-one, 
twenty-two, twenty-three, twenty-four, twenty-five, twenty- 
six, twenty-seven, twenty-eight, twenty-nine, thirty. Write 
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30. Say thirty-one up 
to forty. Write 31 up to 40. Say ten, twenty, thirty, forty, 
fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety, one hundred, one hundred 
and one, one thousand and one. Write 10 20 30 40 50 60 
70 80 90 100 101 1001. 

At the bottom of the picture I see a watch 14 . I carry my 
watch in my pocket. I see an alarm-clock 15 . The alarm is 
set for 6.30 o'clock. That is when I get up in the morning. 



1 Pick 

5 Rails 

9 Water 

13 Bricks 

2 Shovel 

6 Cement-mixer 

10 Engine 

14 Tar 

3 Wheel-barrow 

7 Bags of Cement 

11 Track 

15 Sand 

4 Spade 

8 Crushed-stone 

12 Street-car 

16 Crack 



Where do you work? I work on the street. I work on 
the street-car 12 track 11 . Where did you work? I worked 
in a shop. Did you work on a machine 6 ? Yes, I worked 
on a machine. Now you work with a pick 1 . I work with a 
shovel 2 . I pick the track with a pick. I shovel it with a 
shovel. I shovel it into a wheel-barrow 3 . Sometimes I use 
a spade 4 . 

That machine is a cement-mixer 6 . There are bags of 
cement 7 . There is also some crushed-stone 8 . They put some 
stones in the cement-mixer, then some cement 7 and some 
water 9 and the engine 10 makes the cement-mixer turn and 
mixes the cement with the crushed-stone. At last this comes 
out of the machine into wheel-barrows and men wheel it to 
the railway tracks. They dump it between the rails 5 . This 
hardens and does not let the rails move when the street-car 
runs over them. They put bricks 13 on top of the cement and 
fill in the cracks 16 with tar 14 . At last they sprinkle sand 15 
on the tar. 

I sprinkle the tar with sand to-day. Yesterday I sprinkled 
the tar with sand and I wheeled the wheelbarrow. Did you 
dump the cement between the rails? Yes, I dumped the 
cement between the rails. 



* ) 3 Picture-machine 7 Film 

4 Curtain 8 Usher 

1 Ticket-office 5 Seat 9 Exit 

2 Ticket 6 Gallery 10 Orchestra 

11 Piano 

12 Pianist 

13 Aisle 


Number Twelve PICTURE SHOW 

Did you go to the Picture Show last night? Yes, I went. 
Do you often go ? Yes, I go often. Let us go to-night. We 
walk down the street. We go up to the ticket-office 1 and 
buy a ticket 2 . We go inside to see the pictures. The usher 8 
shows us to a seat 5 . We each take a seat. Sometimes we sit 
in the gallery 6 . It is a good film 7 . There is a good orchestra 10 
to-night. Sometimes there is only a man or a woman play- 
ing the piano 11 . Do you see the exit 9 ? Yes, we go out by 
the exits. Let us go up this aisle 13 and out the exit. We 
go out behind the curtains 4 . 

There is a good picture to-night. It is a story about the 
Great War. Let us go again to-night. There is a woman in 
the ticket-office. She sells tickets to those who want to buy. 
The man inside the door takes our tickets. The usher 
takes us up the aisle. He shows us to our seats. 
The picture-machine 3 shows the pictures on the curtain. The 
pictures are very good. The woman who plays the piano 
is the pianist 12 . 

Do you see that man and woman? He is Mr. Canadian's 
brother. He is the uncle of John Canadian. His wife is the 
aunt of John Canadian. His father is John's- grandfather 
and his mother is John's grandmother. 



1 Teacher 

2 Y.M.C.A. 

3 Student 

4 University 

5 Lesson 

6 Book 

7 Blackboard 13 Magazine 19 Cue 

8 Chart 14 Newspaper 20 Ball 

9 Pencil 15 Swimming-tank 21 Pocket 

10 Note-book 16 Gymnasium 22 Desk 

11 Pen 17 Shower-bath 

12 Pointer 18 Billiard-table 


Number Thirteen NIGHT SCHOOL 

To-night is Monday night. We go to the night school to- 
night. Where do you go ? We go sometimes to the Y.M.C.A. 2 . 
What is the Y.M.C.A.? It is a place where men read 
magazines 13 and newspapers 14 . Sometimes they go into the 
gymnasium 16 where they exercise themselves. Then they 
take a shower-bath 17 and have a swim in the swimming- 
tank 15 . Sometimes they have a game of billiards 18 . The 
man hits the ball 20 with the end of his cue 19 and it hits 
another ball and sends it into a pocket 21 . 

In this Y.M.C.A. there is a class-room. The teacher 1 
teaches us in this room. Who is your teacher? He is a 
Y.M.C.A. man or a student 3 from the university 4 . In this 
picture a man sits at a desk 22 . How does he learn? We 
have our books 6 and our note-books 10 . We have pencils 9 
and pens 11 . He puts up the chart 8 on the wall. It is the 1 
same picture that we have in our books. He takes a 
pointer 12 and he points to an object in the picture. He asks 
us the name of it. We tell him the name of it. We tell him 
what it is called. Sometimes the teacher has a blackboard 7 
and he writes the lesson 5 on it. He writes the word that we 
say, then we write the word in our note-books. We learn to 
spell it. He points to the word on the blackboard with his 
pointer. We say the word ; we write the word ; we remember 
the word. 



1 Barber-shop 
2 Barber 

9 Hair-cut 
10 Shave 

16 Razor-strop 
1 7 Hair Tonic 

23 Shoe-polish 
24 Shoe-brush 

3 Barber's chair 

11 Lather 

18 Dandruff 

25 Tobacco 

4 Cloth 
5 Scissors 
6 Comb 
7 Brush 

12 Shampoo 
13 Shaving-brush 
14 Shaving-mug 
15 Razor 

19 Witch-hazel 
20 TalcumPowder 
21 Seat 
22 Boot 

26 Cigars 
27 Cigarettes 
28 Pipe 
29 Match 

8 Clippers 


Number Fourteen BARBER SHOP AND 

Come, John, let us go into the barber-shop 1 . I want a 
hair-cut 9 and you want a shave 10 . I sit down in the barber's 
chair 3 . I take off my collar and neck-tie. The barber 2 puts 
a cloth 4 over my clothes. He asks me how I want my hair 
cut. I tell him that I want my hair cut short. He takes the 
clippers 8 and cuts my hair short around the back of my head 
and around my ears. Then he takes the scissors 5 and comb 6 
and cuts off the rest. He gives me a shampoo 12 and shaves 
my neck. He puts some hair tonic 17 on my hair to kill the 
dandruff 18 . The barber combs my hair and uses a brush 7 
on it. 

John wants a shave. He sits down in a chair and the 
barber tilts the chair. The barber takes his shaving-mug 14 
and soap and warm water. He makes a lather 11 with his 
shaving-brush 13 and soap and warm water. He puts the lather 
on my face and rubs it with his hand. Then he takes his 
razor 15 in one hand and his razor-strop 16 in the other. He 
sharpens his razor. He shaves my face and then puts a hot 
cloth on it. He puts witch-hazel 19 on my face and then 
talcum powder 20 . 

I want a shoe shine. I sit on the seat 21 . The boy puts 
some shoe-polish 23 on my boots 22 . He takes a shoe-brush 24 
and brushes them. Then he takes a cloth and rubs them 

John wants some tobacco 25 for his pipe 28 . I buy some 
cigars 26 and cigarettes 27 . We also buy some matches 29 . 



1 Platform 

2 Truck 

3 Trunk 

4 Valise 

5 Suit-Case 

6 Ticket-office 

7 Ticket 

8 Ticket-agent 

9 Car 

10 Train 

1 1 Engine 

12 Tender 

14 Engineer 

15 Fireman 

16 Brakeman 

17 Porter 

18 Pullman-car 

19 Day-coach 

20 Berth 

25 Baggage-car 

26 Passenger-train 

27 Freight-train 

28 Caboose 

29 Brakes 

30 Semaphore 

31 Signal 

32 Switch 

21 Tourist 2nd class ticket 33 Lantern 

22 Colonist 3rd class ticket 34 Freight-sheds 

23 Dining-car 

24 Observation-car 



Mr. and Mrs. Canadian and Mary are going on the train 10 . 
We see them on the station platform 1 . Mr. Canadian has a 
valise 4 and Mrs. Canadian has a suitcase 5 . The baggage man 
puts their trunk 3 on a truck 2 . They are going to buy their 
tickets 7 . They go to the ticket-office 6 . The agent 8 sells 
them a first-class ticket. This permits them to ride in a 
first-class coach or day-coach 19 . There are three classes of 
tickets. To travel Pullman 18 one must buy a first-class ticket 
and take a Pullman berth 20 ticket. To travel tourist 21 or 
second class one must buy a second class ticket 21 and a 
second class berth ticket. To travel Colonist or third class 
one must buy a third class ticket 22 . 

Their train is in the station. See the engine 11 . The 
engineer 14 drives the engine. The fireman 15 puts coal from 
the tender 12 into the engine. On this train there is a dining- 
car 23 and an observation-car 24 . The conductor 13 takes the 
tickets. The porter 17 keeps the car 9 clean. The brakeman 16 
on a passenger-train 26 calls out the names of the stations. 
The trunk goes in the baggage-car 25 . 

There is a freight-train 27 . See the caboose 28 . It is at the 
freight-sheds 34 . The brakeman signals 31 with his arms 
or with a lantern 33 . The engineer watches the semaphores 30 
and switches 32 . The brakeman puts on the brakes 29 . 



1 General-delivery 8 Registered- 

2 Postmaster letter 

9 Parcel 

10 Postal-note 

11 Mail-bag 

3 Post-box 

4 Stamp 

5 Letter 

6 Post-card 

12 Envelope 

7 Money -order 13 Postman 


Number Sixteen POST OFFICE 

Come with me to the Post-office. We enter the post-office. 
We see the general delivery 1 wicket where we get our mail. 
We ask the clerk if there is any mail for us. The clerk gives 
us a letter 5 and a post-card 6 . I want to register my letter. I 
pay five cents to register my letter. It is then a registered- 
letter 8 . I want a postal-note 10 also. A postal-note costs a few 
cents and we use it for small amounts of money. We use a 
money-order 7 for large amounts of money. We do not put 
money in an envelope 12 . We send it by money order or by 
postal-note. I give my registered-letter to the clerk. I 
put a stamp 4 on my letter and I put it in the post-box 3 . We 
can send a parcel 9 by post too. 

I have a money-order. I take it to the man at the Money- 
Order wicket. I sign my name and he gives me money for 
it. I have a postal-note and I do the same with it. A note 
from the postmaster 2 tells me that there is a registered- 
letter for me. I sign my name in a book and he gives me my 
letter. Do you see the postman 13 with the mail-bag 11 ? He 
collects the letters and papers from the post-box. He takes 
them into the Post-Office where they are sorted and sent 
where thev are addressed. 



1 Doctor's office 

2 Doctor 

3 Patient 

4 Pulse 

5 Prescription 

6 Drug-store 10 Patent-medicine 

7 Druggist 1 1 Box of pills 

8 Bottle 12 Telephone 

9 Medicine 13 Card "Measles" 


Number Seventeen DOCTOR AND .DRUG- 

I do not feel well to-day. I want to see the doctor 2 . We go 
to the doctor's office 1 . We wait in the waiting-room because 
the doctor is busy. He comes into the room in a few minutes. 
He looks at me, for I am the patient 3 . He feels my pulse 4 
and looks at my tongue. I tell him I have a head-ache. He 
writes out a prescription 5 and I go to the drug-store 6 . Some- 
times the doctor keeps his own medicine 9 . 

The druggist 7 sells drugs. I give him my prescription. 
He gives me a bottle 8 of medicine and a box of pills 11 . The 
medicine makes me well again. The druggist also sells 
patent-medicine 10 . 

John Canadian is not well. He is not able to go to the 
doctor's office. I telephone 12 to the doctor. He comes at 
once and looks at John. John has little red spots on his 
face. The doctor says John has measles. He must stay in 
bed. We must not give him much to eat. He may have 
water to drink. Measles make his eyes sore so we must keep 
the room dark. Pull down the blinds. Mary must not go 
near John. She must not go in his room or she may get 
measles too. The doctor tells the Medical Health Officer and 
he puts a card "Measles" 13 on the door. The card must stay 
there until the doctor takes it down. 



1 Dentist's office 

2 Dentist 

3 Tooth 

4 Forceps 

5 Dentist's chair 

6 Gold 

7 Silver 

8 Tooth-brush 

9 Tooth-powder 
10 Tooth-paste 


Number Eighteen DENTIST 

My tooth 3 hurts me. My tooth aches. I have tooth-ache. 
I go to the dentist's office 1 . The dentist 2 puts me in a dentist's 
chair 5 . I open my mouth. He looks at my teeth. He finds 
a hole in my tooth. It is a small hole. He does not pull my 
tooth. He fills the hole with silver 4 . Sometimes he fills it 
with gold 6 . 

Mary Canadian has a tooth with a large hole in it. The 
dentist pulls her tooth with his forceps 4 . 

The dentist tells me to keep my teeth clean. Clean teeth 
do not get holes in them. We must clean our teeth after we 
eat. We use a tooth-brush 8 and warm water. We put tooth- 
powder 9 or tooth-paste 10 on the tooth-brush and we brush our 
teeth. We keep our teeth white when we brush our teeth. 

We chew our food with our teeth. We must chew our food 
well. Good teeth keep us well. 

Sometimes we have poor teeth. The dentist pulls them all 
and makes us false teeth. 

Mr. Canadian broke off a tooth. The dentist put in a 
gold tooth. Sometimes the dentist puts in a white tooth. 
Mrs. Canadian has a set of false teeth. 



1 Church 

2 Tower 

3 Bell 

4 Church-door 

5 Aisle 

6 Pew 

7 Altar 

8 Preacher 

9 Priest 

10 Bible 

11 Hymn-book 

12 Prayer-book 

13 Collection- 


14 Organ 
V5 Choir 

16 Pulpit 

17 Gallery 

18 Organ-pipes 

19 Organist 

20 Cross 

21 Crucifix 


Number Nineteen CHURCH 

To-day is Sunday. Yesterday was Saturday. To-morrow 
will be Monday. We go to church 1 on Sunday. The 
church-bell 3 rings. The church-bell is ringing. The 
church-bell hangs in the church-tower 2 . The church-tower 
has a cross 20 on it. 

We are at the church-door 4 . The usher shows us to a 
seat. We call a seat in a church a pew 6 . A hymn-book 11 
is on the seat. Do you see the preacher 8 ? He stands at the 
pulpit 16 . He holds a Bible 10 in his hand. He gives the 
number of the hymn. Do you see the organist 19 '? He is 
sitting (sits) at the organ 14 . Do you see the organ-pipes 18 ? 

The choir 15 sit in front of the organ. We stand up to 
sing the hymn which the organist plays on the organ. People 
sit (are sitting) in the gallery 17 . 

In my church we have a priest 9 . He stands at the altar 7 . 
He carries a crucifix 21 and we read from a prayer-book 12 . 
The ushers walk up the aisles 5 and pass the collection- 
plates 13 . We put our collection on the collection-plate. 

To-day is Monday. Were you at church yesterday? No, 
I was sick. I will go next Sunday. 

I was 

we were 

I will be 

we will be 

he was 

you were 

he will be 

you will be 

she was 

they were 

she will be 

they will be 

it was 

it will be 



1 Fruitier 

2 Peanut-roaster 

3 Paper-bag 

4 Peanuts 

5 Oranges 

6 Apples 

7 Pears 

8 Plums 

9 Bunch of 


10 Pineapples 

1 1 Strawberry 

12 Raspberry 

13 Peach 

14 Cherry 

15 Basket 

16 Lemon 


Number Twenty FRUIT STORE 

Here is a fruit-store. Let us go in to buy some fruit. 
We saw on the outside a peanut-roaster 2 . We ask the fruitier 1 
for some peanuts 4 . He puts them in a paper-bag 3 . We go 
into the store. We enter the store. What fruit do you see? 
I see oranges 5 . Oranges are orange in color. He has some 
apples 6 . In the window hangs a bunch of bananas 9 . They 
are yellow. Six pine-apples 10 are also in the window. Have 
you a cherry 14 ? He has two baskets of cherries. He has four 
baskets of peaches 13 , one basket of pears 7 and three of 
plums 8 . There are some small baskets 15 of strawberries 11 
and raspberries 12 . There are some lemons 16 beside the 
oranges. Do you like fruit? Yes, I like fruit. It keeps one 
well. Do oranges grow in Canada? No, they grow in the 
United States. Bananas do not grow in Canada. Apples, 
pears, plums, strawberries, raspberries, peaches, cherries grow 
in Canada. Peaches grow in Florida, California, Ontario and 
British Columbia. Pine-apples do not grow in Canada. The 
fruitier is an Italian. A man from Italy is an Italian. 



1 Grocer 

2 Counter 

3 Glass-case 

4 Candy 

5 Cheese 

6 Potatoes 


7 Turnips 

8 Cabbage' 

9 Vegetables 

10 Corn 

11 Lettuce 

12 Pea 

13 Pea-pod 

14 Cob 

15 Tomato 

16 Celery 

17 Cans 

18 Flour 

19 Sugar 

20 Beets 

21 Carrots 

22 Garlic 

23 Sausage 

24 Bologna 

25 Weigh-scales 

26 Deli very- wagon 

Number Twenty-one GROCERY STORE 

Mr. Canadian and I were walking down the street. Mrs. 
Canadian sent us to the grocery store. Here is a grocery 
store. Let us go in. The grocer 1 stands behind the counter 2 . 
On the counter is a glass-case 3 . This glass-case has candy 4 
in it. A smaller glass-case has cheese 5 in it. There is a bag 
of potatoes 6 near the door. There is also a basket of 
turnips 7 . . See the head of cabbage 8 . Here are two heads of 
cabbage. There are some carrots 21 and some beets 20 . We 
call potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, and cabbage, vege- 
tables 9 . What else do you see? I see some lettuce 11 . The 
lettuce is green. We will have some, and also some celery 16 . 
Do you like tomatoes 15 ? Yes, I do, and peas 12 and corn 10 
as well. The peas are in their pods 13 and the corn is in the 
cob 14 . In winter we can buy all these vegetables in cans 17 . 
We call them canned corn, canned peas, canned tomatoes, 
canned beets. 

Mrs. Canadian said she wanted some flour 18 and sugar 19 . 
The grocer puts the sugar on the weigh scales 25 and weighs 
it. It weighs ten pounds and eight ounces, or ten pounds and 
a half. There are sixteen ounces in a pound. Will you have 
some bologna 24 and pork sausage 23 and garlic 22 ? The 
delivery-wagon 26 outside will take them home. 



\ The Jeweller 
2 Watch 

3 Watch - chain 

4 Ring 

5 Tie pin 

6 Brooch 

7 Diamond 

8 Gems 

9 Glass-case 
10 Shelf 

11 Clock 

12 Cuff-links 

13 Necklace 

14 Bracelet 

15 Ear-ring 


Number Twenty-two JEWELLERY SHOP 

Here is a jewellery shop. Let us look at the things in the 
window. What a pretty gold watch 2 ! There is a gold watch- 
chain 3 beside it. Do you like a ring 4 on your finger? Yes, 
and I like a tie-pin 5 in my tie. Mary wants a bracelet 14 for 
her wrist. I must go in and buy her one. I will buy my 
wife a necklace 13 . It will have diamonds 7 and other gems 8 
in it. Some day I will buy her a silver brooch 6 . John wants 
some cuff-links 12 . I think I will buy him a pair to-day. 
Mrs. Canadian wears ear-rings 15 on her ears. 

The jeweller 1 stands behind the glass-case 9 . There are 
many clocks 11 in the room. Some of them are on the 
shelf 10 . The jeweller cleans a watch. The watch is cleaned 
by the jeweller. Mr. Canadian buys a brooch. The brooch 
is bought by Mr. Canadian. John uses cuff-links. Cuff-links 
are used by John. Mary wears a necklace to-day. The neck- 
lace is worn by Mary to-day. Mary wore a necklace yes- 
terday. The necklace was worn by Mary yesterday. Mary 
will wear a necklace to-morrow. The necklace will be worn 
by Mary to-morrow. 


23 PARK 

1 Tree 
2 Leaf 
3 Maple-leaf 
4 Chestnut-leaf 
5 Oak-leaf 
6 Elm-leaf 
7 Basswood-leaf 
8 Pine-needle 
9 Seat 

10 Grass 
11 Path 
12 Road 
13 Open-space 
14 Band-stand 
15 Steps 
16 Railing 
17 Hedge 



18 Shr 

19 Bushes 


Number Twenty-three PARK 

Yesterday was Saturday and we went for a walk in the 
park. It was spring-time. In spring-time the leaf 2 comes 
on the tree 1 . Many leaves come on the trees. Soon the trees 
are covered with leaves. Do you know the maple-leaf 3 ? 
The chestnut-leaf 4 is a broad leaf. The oak-leaf 5 is long and 
narrow. Look at the picture of the elm-leaf 6 and basswood- 
leaf 7 . The pine-tree has not a leaf. It has a pine-needle 8 . 
Under the maple-tree is a seat 9 . We sit down on the seat and 
we look across the park. We see the green grass 10 . We see 
a path 11 to walk on and a road 12 to drive on. In the open- 
space 13 there is a band-stand 14 . In the evening the band 
gives the concert there. Do you see the steps 15 up to the 
band-stand? What is that with the fence around it? It is 
some bushes 19 and shrubs 18 . On the other side there is a 
hedge 1 /. There is a railing 16 around the band-stand, and a 
seat is near the band-stand. 

There will be a band-concert in the park to-morrow night. 
It will be given by the band. I hope that it- will be a fine 
night, then we will go. 



4 Barnyard 

5 Pump 

6 Horse 


12 Pig, Hog 

13 Dog 

14 Pup 

15 Cat 

16 Kitten 

17 Donkey 

18 Goat 

19 Kid 

20 Mouse 

21 Rat 

Number Twenty-four FARMYARD 

To-day is the 24th of May. It is a holiday because it was 
Queen Victoria's birthday. Let us take a walk in the country. 
We are coming to the home of a farmer 1 . There is his 
house 2 and his barn 3 . The farmer is standing at the pump 5 . 
Around the barn is a barnyard 4 . In the barnyard is a horse 6 . 
A young horse is a colt 7 . There is also a cow 8 . A young cow 
is a calf 9 . In the field is a herd of cows, also a flock of 
sheep 10 . There are some lambs 11 with the sheep. A lamb is 
a young sheep. There are some pigs 12 in a pen. Hog 12 is 
another name for pig. 

The dog 13 is with the farmer. He has a pup 14 with him 
too. A cat 15 is sitting on the fence and two kittens 16 are 
playing near the mother cat. Did you ever see a goat 18 ? This 
farmer has a goat. A young goat is a kid 19 . A donkey 17 is 
standing with his head over the gate. A donkey always has 
long ears. 

The farmer uses his horse to pull his wagon. A donkey 
can draw a wagon too. The cow gives milk. The sheep has 
wool on its back. The farmer kills the pig and sells it as 
pork. A dog can drive animals. The cat catches a mouse 20 . 
Cats catch mice or rats 21 . (One mouse, two mice). A goat 
gives milk. These are all useful animals around a farm. 



1 Farmer's wife 5 Chicken 8 Goose 1 1 Turkey >gobbler 

2 Poultry-house ~ 6 Duck 9 Gosling 12 Egg 

3 Rooster 7 Duckling 10 Turkey-hen 13 Grain 

4 Hen 


Number Twenty-five POULTRY- YARD 

The farmer's wife 1 looks after the poultry. She is at the 
poultry-house 2 now and is feeding the hens 4 and chickens 5 . 
Her daughter has some hen's eggs 12 in her hand. Do you see 
the rooster 3 stretching his neck? He is crowing. There are 
some ducks 6 with their ducklings 7 , also a goose 8 and her 
goslings 9 . Ducks and geese are very fond of water. Look at 
the turkey gobbler 11 . See how he struts around. He has 
several turkey hens 10 with him. 

Poultry are very fond of grain 13 so the farmer's wife has 
given them some grain. Hens and chickens are very fond of 
scratching. They like to get in a sunny spot and dust them- 

Hens set on their eggs and in three weeks the chickens 
hatch out of the eggs. In a few months the chickens are 
large enough to eat, so the farmer's wife kills them and sells 
them to people to eat. We all like roast chicken, or roast 
duck, or roast turkey, or roast goose. Sometimes they stew 
the chicken instead of roasting it. Fowl is another name for 



1 Sky 

2 Cloud 

3 Star 

4 Moon 

5 Sun 

6 Sunshine 

7 Horizon 

8 Earth 

9 Rain 

10 Snow 

11 Ice 

12 Hail 

13 Skating-rink 

14 Sleigh 


Number Twenty-six WEATHER 

The sun 5 is shining bright to-day. Do you like sunshine 6 ? 
Yes, very much ; because it warms the earth 8 and makes 
things grow. Look at the sky 1 . It is blue, but there are 
some black clouds 2 ifi it. It is beginning to rain. The rain 9 
makes the grass grow. There are a few hail-stones 12 . Hear 
them rattle on the window-pane ! Hail is rain frozen as it 

In winter it snows and the weather is cold. There is plenty 
of ice 11 in winter and we go skating on the ice in winter-time. 
It is fine to skate on the ice when the moon 4 and the stars 3 
are shining. Do you ever skate in the skating-rink 13 ? 

The place where the earth and sky seem to meet is called 
the horizon 7 . 

Spring is the time of the year when the snow 10 melts and 
the grass gets green. The time of year when the warm days 
come and the sun is hot we call summer. The time of year 
when the leaves of the trees fall and the weather gets cold 
we call autumn. The time of the year when the snow falls 
and the cold weather comes we call winter. Spring, summer, 
autumn, winter, are the four seasons of the year. We like 
the winter when the snow comes and we can go sleigh- 
riding 14 . We like spring when the grass and flowers grow. 
We love the beautiful colors of autumn and the warm bright 
sunshine 6 of summer. 



1 Robin 

2 Sparrow 

3 Swallow 

4 Pigeon 

5 Crow 

6 Black-bird 

7 Worm 

8 Hawk 

9 Eagle 

10 Corn 

1 1 Scare-crow 


umber Twenty-seven BIRDS 

I like to go to the park in spring-time because there are 
so many birds that sing so sweetly in the trees. The robin 1 
is a pretty bird with a red breast. Watch him pull a worm 7 
out of the earth. Then there is the English sparrow 2 , which 
is gray in color. 

What is that flock of birds? They are swallows 3 . They 
circle around in the air. A pigeon 4 is larger than a robin and 
has a very full breast. It is large enough for us to eat. 

Do you see that crow 5 on the top of the tree? A crow is 
black in color. A black-bird 6 is black also but it is smaller 
than a crow. Crows and blackbirds are not good to eat. 
Crows are very fond of the farmer's corn 10 when it is just 
coming through the earth. In order to frighten the crow the 
farmer puts a scare-crow 11 in his corn fietd. 

When you go to the country you may see a hawk 8 . A 
hawk likes very much to be near a poultry-house. He can 
swoop down and take a young chicken and fly away with it. 

The eagle 9 is a large, powerful bird. We call it a bird of 
prey. There are a few eagles in Canada and there are a few 
in United States. 



1 Garden 

2 Gardener, 


3 Green-house 

4 Rose 

5 Tulip 

6 Carnation 

7 Peony 

8 Geranium 

9 Lily-of-the-valley 

10 Bud 

1 1 Bloom, blossom 

12 Bouquet 

13 Lilac 

14 Sweet-pea 

15 Violet 


umber Twenty-eight FLOWERS 

What a beautiful garden 1 ! See this rose 4 bush. There are 
several fine blooms 11 and many buds 10 . The tulip 5 comes up 
early in the spring, having been in the earth all winter. Do 
you see that low bush with the large red blossoms 11 ? That 
is a peony 7 . Peonies may be white or red or pink. Carna- 
tions 6 are red and white and pink too. They are much smaller 
than peonies. See them in the florist's 2 window. Many 
people grow geraniums 8 . Geraniums may be white, pink, red 
in color. 

Gardeners 2 grow flowers in winter time in green-houses 3 . 
A green-house is made of glass. It is well heated and the 
sun shining through the glass makes the plants burst into 
buds, and then into blossoms or blooms. 

Lily-of-the-valley 9 has blooms bell-shaped, and pure white 
in color. The perfume from them is delightful. The sweet- 
pea 14 may be all colors and has also a delightful perfume. 
Would you like a bouquet 12 of sweet peas or of lily-of-the- 
valley ? 

Just look at those tall bushes ! They are covered with 
white and purple blossoms. They are called lilacs 13 . They, 
too, have a delightful perfume. Next to the geranium in the 
picture we see the violet 15 . It is a very dainty little flower. 



1 Hive 

2 Bee 

3 Mosquito 

4 House-fly 

5 Wasp 

7 Black fly 

8 Butterfly 

9 Moth 

10 Cricket 

1 1 Grasshopper 

12 Caterpillar 

13 Spider 

14 Ant 

15 Web 

16 Honey 

17 Garbage pail 

18 Ant-hill 


Number Twenty-nine INSECTS 

Do you see that bee 2 which is crawling into that flower? 
It is a honey bee. Honey bees live in a hive 1 . Bees .make 
honey 16 . Do you like to eat honey? Yes, I like to eat honey. 
It is sweet. 

There, is something buzzing around .my head. It is a 
mosquito 3 , and if I do not kill it, it will sting me. Mosquito 
bites itch very much. A wasp 5 and a hornet 6 sting too. Their 
sting is worse than that of a mosquito. 

Do you see that fly? It is a house fly 4 . There are many 
kinds of flies, but this one likes to come into the house. See 
that fly crawling over the garbage-pail 17 . Now it is on the 
table. It is crawling on the bread. Its legs and wings are 
dirty. It will make the bread not good to eat. We should 
kill flies because they carry dirt to what we eat and when we 
eat it we become sick. 

Oh ! there is a tiny black-fly 7 . It is not a house-fly. Kill it 
if you can. Its bite is very painful. What is that furry 
thing? It is a caterpillar 12 . After a few weeks it will spin 
a house and go to sleep in it. Later it will come out a 
butterfly 8 . There is a butterfly among the flowers. Last 
night I saw a butterfly near the light. No, that was not a 
butterfly. They do not come out at night. That was a moth. 9 
That black thing hopping in the grass is a cricket 10 . Do you 
hear the noise it makes? We call it a "chirp." There is a 
grasshopper 11 . Its home is in the grass too. That is a 
spider's web 15 . A spider 13 spun the web to catch a fly. That 
tiny black thing is an ant 14 . Ants live in ant-hills 18 . 







S5.-3S: TOTHECOURT...9f A"> R?l5l8tratlon 

[, .Qeorge John_Canadlan 
2*;VJ u< 161 Yonge Street, Toronto. 

Che undersigned, intend to apply to the above Court after the expiration of three months 
from thwdate for a decision that 1 am qualified and fit to be naturalized as a British subject. 
1 have resided for five years within the last eight years in His Majesty's Dominions at the 
places and during the periods following 

MMami C8 49 utt8 In41a . tw years. 

j?!^T Manchester, England, one year and three months. 
Toronto, Canada, the past two yeare. 

I was born at.... 

.Bern* ...... jn thc country _________ 

! Switzerland .............. OT the fifteenth day of Op.t.ofcer .188.5 ._. , 

I <m ^j*" of ........ Switzerland 

and 1 came to Canada from. Manchester . England ........ ..... ........................... ______ 

and urived at the Port of H l I*" ..... 

on the venel .n. JtOhan. OT or about , he 

Te.nth ....... ....................... day of. August ................ ,,16 

Dated .t ........ 'owntp .................... Mi ...... Kleventh .................. 

day ol _ Ooto * er i Hlneteen hundred and eighteen. . 

The above application will be heard before Pour* Of Alien 

on or about the twenty fifth, day of October, nineteen Hundred sod 
tight e.8n, 



Before John Canadian can vote he must have lived five 
years of the last eight years in His Majesty's Dominions, 
and he must have lived the last year in Canada. He must 
also speak English or French. 

To become naturalized John must get two copies of Form 
A from the Clerk of the Court and fill" them out. He must 
post one copy up in the nearest Post Office and he is told that 
he must appear before the Court in three months. One month 
before he must appear in court, he must obtain Form B, 
"Facts for Petition for Naturalization," in which he must 
describe what he looks like. 

When John appears before the Court he must present a 
copy of Form A and a man must take his oath that a copy 
of Form A remained posted in the nearest Post Office for 
three months. He must also have a man take his oath that 
a copy of Form A remained posted up in Clerk's office for 
three months. If the Court finds that John should be nat- 
uralized it sends word to the Secretary of State, who sends 
back word that John is to become a citizen. In three months' 
time John takes the Oath of Allegiance and becomes a citizen 
and then he can have a vote. 



1 Polling-division 

2 Polling-booth 

3 Scrutineer 

4 Poll-clerk 

5 Ballot 

6 Ballot-box 

7 Candidate 

8 Voters'-list 


Number Thirty-one HOW TO VOTE 

When I have taken out my citizenship papers I can vote. 

The city or country is divided into polling-divisions 1 . I 
must find out where the polling-booth 2 is, because that is the 
place where I vote. I go into the' polling-booth. The 
scrutineer 3 sees that my name is on the voters' list 8 , and that 
I have my citizenship papers. Then he lets me go inside. The 
poll-clerk 4 gives me my ballot 5 . On the ballot are the names 
of the candidates 7 who want to be elected. The poll-clerk 
tells me how many men I can vote for. If six men's names 
are on the ballot and four men are to be elected I put an X 
beside the names of the four men that I want elected. I fold 
up the ballot and give it back to the poll-clerk. He puts it in 
the ballot-box 6 . 

I should always be careful whom I vote for. The man 
who is elected makes laws for me. Sometimes men who want 
to be elected offer money to men to vote for them. I should 
never take money for my vote. A good man does not offer 
money for my vote. So if a man offers me money for my 
vote I should not vote for him because he would not make 
good laws to govern me. 



1 City-Hall 

2 Mayor 

3 Controller 

4 Alderman 

5 School-Trustees 

6 Commissioners 


Number Thirty-two CITY COUNCIL 

Look at that splendid building. Do you know what it is? 
Yes, I know what it is. It is the City Hall 1 . What is a City 
Hall? It is a building where the Mayor 2 , and Aldermen 4 , 
Controllers 3 and Commissioners 6 meet to look after the affairs 
of the City. Who is the Mayor? He is the head man in 
the city and we elect him for a year. Who are the Con- 
trollers ? They are men elected -for a year to help the Mayor 
find out how much money is needed in taxes from the citizens. 
They also say how that money will be spent. The Aldermen 
are also elected for one year. Every part of the city has one 
or two Aldermen who look after what the people want who 
live in that part. 

The School Trustees 5 are sometimes elected for more than 
one year. These men look after what the schools in the city 

The Mayor and Controllers are generally paid for their 
work. The Aldermen and School Trustees are not paid. In 
some cities instead of a Mayor or Controller they have Com- 
missioners who are paid to look after the affairs of the city. 




1 Parliament Buildings 

2 Lieutenant-Governor 

1) Premier 

4 Leader of Opposition 

5 Members of Cabinet 

6 Members of Government 

7 Members of Opposition 

8 Legislature 


Number Thirty-three CANADIAN PROVIN- 

To-day is voting day. I have found out where I am to 
vote. The election to-day is a Provincial election. In the 
Provincial Parliament or Legislature 8 there are two parties. 
They are called Liberal and Conservative. The Province is 
divided up into equal parts and one man goes from each part 
to the largest city, where he meets men from the other parts 
of the Province. These men make the laws for the Province. 
The party that has. the largest number of men who generally 
vote the same way is called the party in power. The man 
who is head of that party is called the Premier 3 , and he 
chooses men from his own party to form a cabinet 5 . Each 
man in this cabinet is head of some work. One looks after 
Education, one after Mines, one after Agriculture, and 
so on. The leader of the other party is called the Leader of 
the Opposition 4 . 

I must be careful whom I vote for. If I do not know the 
candidates, I should find out what each man is like and what 
he says he will vote for if he is elected. 

When a law is passed by the Legislature 8 , which meets in 
the Parliament Buildings 1 , the Lieutenant-Go vernor 2 must 
sign it before it becomes law. The Dominion Government 
appoints the Lieutenant-Governor. 



1 King of England 

2 Governor-General 

3 Premier 

4 Leader of Opposition 

5 Members of Government 

6 Members of Opppsition 

7 Cabinet Ministers 

8 Senate 

9 House of Commons 


Number thirty-four CANADIAN DOMIN- 

Let us learn how Canada is governed. The King of Eng- 
land 1 appoints a Governor-General 2 . The Governor-General 
signs all bills and makes them laws. There are two parties 
in the Dominion Parliament. We call them the Government 
and the Opposition. The head of the Government is called 
the Premier 3 of Canada, and the head of the Opposition is 
called the Leader of the Opposition 4 . Members are sent up 
from the different parts of Canada, and whichever party has 
the more members is called the Government party. The 
Premier has members to help him govern and we call them 
Cabinet Ministers 7 . Each Cabinet Minister has charge of 
some work. One has charge of the Post Office for the 
Dominion of Canada. One has charge of Public Works. 
Another has charge of Railways and Canals, and so on. 

The Senate 8 is made up of men who are appointed for life. 
Every bill that is passed by the House of Commons 9 must be 
passed on by the Senate. After the Senate passes the bill 
the Governor-General signs the bill and makes it a law. 



1 Drill-press 

2 Shafting 

3 Wheel 

4 Pulley 

5 Belt 

6 Lathe 

7 Guard 

8 Truck 

9 Drill 

10 Engine 

1 1 Reamer 

12 Wood-planer 

13 Saw 

14 Coal 


Number Thirty-five MACHINE SHOP 

This is a machine shop. Look at the men working at the 
machines. There is shafting 2 all about the shop. On the 
shafting there are wheels 3 and pulleys 4 . On every wheel and 
pulley there is a belt 5 . Do you see that large belt coming 
from the shafting? It runs the drill-press 1 . Above the drill- 
press we see a lathe 6 . The men use a lathe very much. Every 
wheel and belt has a guard 7 . The guards keep the clothes 
of the men away from the wheel. In the engine 10 room we 
see a truck 8 . The truck has four wheels. It is beside the pile 
of coal 14 . Beside the drill-press is a wood-planer 12 . This 
machine planes wood and makes rough wood smooth. A 
man stands beside the wood-planer and planes some wood. 
Do you see the drill 9 beside the drill-press ? They use a drill 
to drill holes. There is a man beside the reamer 11 . His right 
hand is on a small wheel. Do you see what makes this 
machine work? A belt comes down from the pulley on the 
shafting and turns a wheel on the reamer. A man opens a 
door of the engine and puts in coal. Beside the lathe we see 
a machine. That machine is called a saw 13 . It has a wheel 
with teeth cut in it and it cuts wood. 



15 Casting-mould 22 Sand 29 Bolt 

16 Moulding-machine 23 Crane 30 Furnace 

17 Cupola 24 Bars of steel 31 Die 

18 Ladle 25 Forge 32 Gangway 

19 Shovel 26 Anvil 33 Elevator 

20 Riddle 27 Hammer 

21 Moulding 28 Drop-hammer 


Number Thirty-six MOULDING SHOP 

Let us go into the Moulding Shop. There are machines 
here and men working at them. Two men are standing by a 
casting-mould 15 . Men heat the steel in a cupola 17 and carry 
it in a ladle 18 to the casting-mould. To make the casting- 
mould, they take some sand 22 and sift the sand through a 
riddle 20 . They shovel the sand with a shovel 19 into a 
moulding-machine 16 . Then they pour the hot steel from the 
ladle into the casting-mould. When the Steel has cooled they 
take out the moulding 21 . Over hqad we see a large crane 23 
which they use to lift heavy pieces of machines and to carry 
them about the shop. Do you see the forge 25 ? A man puts 
bars of steel 24 into the cupola. Sometimes he puts them in 
the forge. Then he takes them out and puts them on the 
anvil 26 . He hammers them with a hammer 27 . Sometimes he 
puts them in a press or under the drop-hammer 28 . This man 
takes bolts 29 from the furnace 30 and puts them in a die 31 . A 
man is going up the elevator 33 and a man with a truck is 
coming along the gangway 32 to the elevator. 


34 Press 

35 Grinder 

36 Emery-wheel 

37 Bulldowser 


38 Burner 

39 Trip-hammer 

40 Shear 

41 Eyebender 

Number Thirty-seven FOUNDRY SHOP 

This shop has four men and seven machines. Let us learn 
the names of these machines. Belts from the pulleys and 
wheels on the shafting drive these machines. We see a press 34 , 
in the centre of the picture. There is a man standing by the 
grinder 35 . A man is standing by the emery-wheel 36 grinding 
a piece of steel. There is a man standing by the trip-ham- 
mer 39 . Next to the trip-hammer is the shear 40 . This machine 
cuts steel in two pieces. A man is standing by the bull- 
dowser 37 . Watch how he works it. His left hand is on a 
little wheel. Next to the bulldowser is an eyebender 41 . This 
machine takes an iron rod and bends it as we see in the 
picture. Sometimes the man who works the machines wants 
his iron or steel hot. He uses a burner 38 which makes the 
iron or steel hot. 

Let us walk through the three shops. There is the Machine 
Shop, Moulding Shop, and Foundry Shop. 



1 Machinery 

2 Painter 

3 Overhead-trolley 

4 Paint-vats 

5 Paint-brush 

6 Stirring-paddle 

7 Barrel 

8 Bench 

9 Paint-can 


Number Thirty-eight PAINT SHOP 

Let us watch how they paint machinery 1 in this paint shop. 
We see the overhead trolley 3 . Look at those paint-vats 4 . 
There is paint in those paint-vats. They do not paint 
machinery with paint-brushes 5 . They dip the pieces of 
machinery into these paint- vats and then they hang them up 
to dry. Do you see that stirring-paddle 6 in the paint-vats? 
They must stir the paint because it gets thick. This is a 
barrel 7 and that is a bench 8 . You can sit on that bench. 
There is a paint-can 9 on the barrel. 

That man is a painter 2 . He has paint all over him. He 
paints machinery but he does not use a paint-brush. He 
takes it to the paint-vats. He takes the stirring-paddle and 
stirs the paint in the vat. Then he takes the piece of 
machinery and dips it in the vat. He takes it out of the vat 
and hangs it up to dry. 

This man has a paint-brush in his hand. He is sitting on a 
bench beside a barrel. He has a paint-can near him and he 
is going to paint something with his paint-brush. 



1 Freight-car 

2 Stock yards 

3 Pens 

4 Runway 

5 Storage-pen 6 Pig, Hog 


Number Thirty-nine ABATTOIR OR PACK- 

John Canadian met a man when he was going to work this 
morning. It was ten minutes to seven. He asked him where 
he was going. He answered that he was going to work at 
the abattoir or packing-house. He asked John to come with 
him and he would show him how they killed pigs 6 and made 
them ready to eat. First they go to the stock-yards 2 . In the 
stock-yards they see freight-cars 1 . Near the freight-cars 
they see some pens 3 . In these pens there are some pigs. Near 
the pens there are some storage-pens 5 . A runway 4 goes from 
the pens to the storage-pens. 

What do we see in the first picture of abattoir or packing- 
house? We see three freight-cars beside the stock-yards. 
There are three men by the freight-cars. We see two runways 
from the cars to the pens. We see eight pens. In the first 
pen there are eight pigs. In the third pen there are two men. 
They are driving the pigs up the runway into the storage- 
pens. We see three storage-pens. 



7 Shackling-pen 

8 Chain 

9 Shackling-wheel 

10 Slide-rail 

11 Sticker 

12 Knife 


13 Blood 

14 Hose 

15 Scalding-tub 

16 Scraper 

17 Polisher 

18 Rolling-table 



John and the man go into the abattoir or packing-house. 
They see the men driving the pigs up the rmrv\$ay. They drive 
them into the shackling-pen". In the shackling-pen a man 
takes the hind leg of the pig. He fastens a chain 8 to it. He 
fastens the chain to the shackling-wheel 9 . The shackling- 
wheel turns around and pulls the pig up by the leg. The 
chain fastens to a slide-rail 10 and the pig slides on the slide- 
rail to the sticker 11 . The sticker is a man who sticks the pig. 
He sticks the pig in the throat with a knife 12 . The blood 13 
spurts out and the pig dies. A man takes the hose 14 and 
sprays the pig. They put the pig in the scalding-tub 15 . They 
leave it there from six to ten minutes. The water in the 
scalding-tub is very hot. Then they put the pig through the 
scraper 16 . This takes off some of the hair. The polisher 17 
takes off some more hair. The pig is put on the rolling- 
table 18 and a man scrapes off the rest of the hair with a knife. 

In the picture there are six men. One puts the pig on the 
shackling-wheel ; one sticks the pig with a knife ; one turns 
the hose on the pig ; one puts the pig through the scraper and 
polisher, and one scrapes it on the rolling-table with a knife. 



19 Travelling-conveyor 

20 Dressing-rail 

2 1 Government-inspector 

22 Splitter 

23 Cold-storage 

24 Ham 

25 Shoulder 

26 Head 

27 Snout 

28 Jaw 


29 Meat 

30 Sausage 

31 Wiener 

32 Tail 



They see the pig hanging with its snout 27 down. They see 
a man with a knife open the pig as it hangs on the dressing- 
rail 20 . The government-inspector 21 inspects the pig to see 
that it is good. When the government- inspector marks it bad 
they put it away and make it into fertilizer. We do not eat 
meat that is bad. When the government-inspector marks the 
pig good it goes to the splitter 22 and he cuts the pig in two 
big .pieces. They put it in cold-storage 23 for twenty-four 
hours. Then they cut the pig into hams 24 and shoulders 25 . 
They sell these hams and shoulders as fresh meat. Often they 
cure the meat so that it will keep good to eat. We must eat 
fresh meat at once or it will spoil. When meat is cured we 
can keep it a long time before it will spoil. 

The jaws 28 are cut in two pieces. They cut off the snout, 
ears, feet and tail 32 . They cut up the head and make it into 
sausage 30 and wieners 31 . Wieners are cooked meat but saus- 
age is not cooked. Sausages are larger than wieners. 






e a *g" 

Te >to, out. 

' P-^t o r i0 '; d fl " P '* ^ '- 





5J Yards 

1760 Yards 

320 Rods. 




144 Square Inches . . 

9 Square Feet 

30| Square Yards . . . 
4840 Square Yards . . . 
160 Square Rods ... 
640 Acres.. 

Square Foot 
Square Yard 
Square Rod 
Square Mile 


1 728 Cubic Inches .... I Cubic Foot 

27 Cubic Feet 1 Cubic Yard 

1 28 Cubic Feet 1 Cord (of 

Firewood, etc. 


2 Pints 1 Quart 

4 Quarts 1 Gallon 

2 Gallons \ Peck 

4 Pecks . . . . 1 Bushel 


1 6 Ounces 1 Pound 

2000 Pounds.. ..1 Ton 

60 Seconds . . 
60 Minutes . . 
24 Hours . . . 
7 Days .... 
52 Weeks . . . 

365 Days .... 

366 Days . . . 








Leap Year 


January 31 Days 

February 28 Days 

March 31 Days 

April 30 Days 

May 31 Days 

June , ... 30 Days 

July 31 Days 

August 31 Days 

September 30 Days 

October 31 Days 

November 30 Days 

December 31 Days 

In Leap Year February has 29 Days. 



God save our gracious King, 
Long live our noble. King, 

God save the King. 
Send him victorious, 
! Tappy and glorious, 
Long to reign over us, 

God save the King. 

Thy choicest gifts in store 
On him be pleased to pour 

Long may he reign. 
May he defend our laws, 
And ever give us cause 
To sing, with heart and voice, 

God save the King. 


O Canada! Our home our native land. 
True patriot love thou dost in us command. 
We see thee rising fair, dear land, 
The true North strong and free ; 
And stand on guard, O Canada, 
We stand on guard for thee. 


O Canada ! O Canada ! 
O Canada. We stand on guard for thee. 

O Canada ! Where pines and maples grow, 
Great prairies spread and lordly rivers flow. 
Thou art the land, O Canada, 

From East and Western sea, 
The land of hope for all who toil, 

The land of liberty. 

O Canada! Beneath thy shining skies 
May stalwart sons and gentle maidens rise ; 
And so abide, O Canada, 

From East to Western sea, 
Where e'er thy pines and prairies are, 

The True North strong and free.